Portraits of Albanian Women Who Have Lived Their Lives As Men

Underpinning this tradition was the firm grip in northern Albania of “the Kanun,” a set of rules and social norms that classify women as chattel whose purpose was to serve men. By declaring herself a man, Duni was not striking at conventional gender norms, but submitting to them. She also shares the strongly transphobic and homophobic views that are prevalent in Albania. Duni working in a field in the mountain village of Lepushe, in northern Albania. A centuries-old tradition in at this source https://countrywaybridalboutique.com/european-women-features/albanian-women-features/ which women declared themselves men so they could enjoy male privilege is dying out as young women have more options available to them to live their own lives.

We also found that the vaginal coinfections have an important role in the development of metaplasia. According to the logistic regression, we noted that women with HPV and coinfection have a 3.8 times higher chance of having metaplasia compared to the ones with only HPV infection. In a molecular level, the mechanism leading to cervical cancer from HPV infection is connected with the viral proteins E6 and E7. Coinfections with HPV are thought to intervene in the natural history of the HPV infection as well as in the development of the lesions caused by the virus itself. The cytological examination is important in identifying the cervicovaginal infections. For example, the identification of Candida, Gardnerella, and especially Trichomonas vaginalis is most of the time the responsibility of the cytopathologist. There are studies showing that cytology has a greater accuracy than biopsy.

The Elbasan Arena is currently the national stadium of the Albania women’s national football team. The first home match in the country was played in the Gjorgji Kyçyku Stadium of Pogradec in May 2011.

  • Over 90% of women with cervical cancer are HPV positive.
  • In other studies, with screening purposes, the numbers are of course lower, whereas in studies conducted on sexually active females with gynecologic symptoms, the numbers are very high.
  • This is the age where preventive efforts and policies should be focused to reduce the incidence of CC.

The number of Albanian women in the workforce is rapidly increasing. Women now comprise the majority of agricultural workers in Albania, yet they are still paid lower wages than their male counterparts. On average, women receive 18% lesser salaries than men. Economic Empowerment Program in Albania provides resources for programs and initiatives. Such initiatives aim to expand vocational training and encourage female entrepreneurship throughout the country.

Additionally, the network lobbied local and regional officials for resources for women’s health care. Network members met with the top officials of their respective districts and contacted their members of parliament to gain support. Though the campaigns were organized and implemented by the regional branches of the network, the women leveraged the organization’s national presence to raise a united voice and address national leaders, including the speaker of parliament. Albania Table of ContentsThe Union of Albanian Women was another important mass organization. The union was headed in 1990 by Lumturie Rexha, a member of the Central Committee of the APL.

The Mountains Where Women Live as Men

Fifty women, all graduates of NDI’s political skills-building series, founded the network in 2008 as a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization . NDI, with funding from the National Endowment for Democracy, has supported these women as they strengthen and develop their NGO to become a leading proponent for women’s representation in politics. Through these efforts, in Pogradec, a city in southeastern Albania, the women’s network secured a commitment from the director of the regional hospital and the city’s deputy mayor to provide free Pap tests for local women. The findings of a study on “Violence against women in politics”, conducted by UNDP in cooperation with Albania’s Ombudsman and Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination, were published on Wednesday at a roundtable held in the Albanian parliament. The poem “Bags” by Blerina Rogova Gaxha, a contemporary Albanian poet, snatches the reader’s attention from the first lines by bringing them into a physical yet metaphorical space, a revelation and a journey onto a life not fully lived. Throughout the poem the reader can feel a sense of hastiness, the poet’s agony over the lingering confusion through objects representing the past and the anguish of future uncertainty.

Albanian women in politics still suffering violence, study finds

For a burrnesha, it was about the oath, about vowing to find a place and purpose in your family, and country, that offered no place for you. „It’s a good life,“ said Lule, „but a very lonely one for the burrnesha.“ It was every Albanian father’s fear for a daughter, http://iqac.aust.edu/seven-facts-to-know-about-womens-health-health-equity-features/ that she’d end up alone. Though he, like most Albanians, loves all things American, he wondered why Obama had apologized for spying on Germany when every other country did it, too. Secondly, why were we slinking out of Afghanistan after making it our business for a dozen years?

In only three months they managed to support 650 people directly and 2,500 through online counselling, all without dedicated financial support, so fundraising has been part of the initiative. Services include response and referrals for individuals in need of psychological counselling, social and legal services; support to families in need of food and other basic needs; and empowerment for resilience webinars and campaigns to support local businesses.

Which is what made it increasingly uncomfortable to go knocking on doors. When we came to Mark, who lived in a town outside the capital, we were met with a steely glare. For almost his entire eighty years, he’d lived as a man, and no one had ever known. Then one of his family members revealed him, and in an instant everything had changed. Those in town regarded him differently; intruding strangers like us came around. He pointed to paintings on the wall, of Jesus on the Cross, of the Virgin Mary.


This is different from the distribution in other parts of the world where the dominant age group is under 25 years old. The prevalence of HPV infection is very low in women over 60 whereas the incidence of high grade cervical lesions increases with age.

In countries of Eastern Europe, as in our study, we find a higher number of positive women in the age group of 25–30 years old. This is the age where preventive efforts and policies should be focused to reduce the incidence of CC. There is a strong relationship between CIN1 and HPV positivity as well as between CIN1 and coinfections. HPV infection is a major factor contributing to metaplasia, and bacterial coinfections in HPV positive women have a statistically significant impact in the development of metaplasia.